Ind AS 18: Revenue Recognition
Ind AS 18, titled “Revenue,” is an accounting standard issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI), providing guidance on the recognition, measurement, and disclosure of revenue from various types of transactions. The standard aims to ensure that revenue is recognized in a manner that accurately reflects the transfer of goods or services to customers and the amount of consideration the entity expects to receive in exchange for these goods or services.
Ind AS 18 applies to the recognition of revenue from the following sources:
- Sale of goods
- Rendering of services
- Interest, royalties, and dividends
Recognition of Revenue:
Revenue is recognized when it is probable that economic benefits will flow to the entity and these benefits can be reliably measured. The following criteria must be met for revenue recognition:
- The risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer.
- The entity retains no control over the goods.
- The amount of revenue and associated costs can be reliably measured.
Sale of Goods:
Revenue from the sale of goods is generally recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer. This usually occurs when the entity has no significant continuing involvement in the goods, the buyer has the ability to pay, and the entity retains no managerial involvement or control over the goods.
Rendering of Services:
For service transactions, revenue is recognized based on the stage of completion at the end of the reporting period. The stage of completion can be determined using methods such as the proportion of costs incurred to date compared to the estimated total costs or using other methods that represent the stage of completion.
Interest, Royalties, and Dividends:
Interest, royalties, and dividends are recognized when the right to receive payment is established.
Measurement of Revenue:
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account any trade discounts, volume rebates, and returns. If the amount of consideration cannot be reliably measured, revenue is recognized only to the extent of recoverable costs.
Entities are required to provide certain disclosures in the financial statements to provide users with a clear understanding of the revenue recognition policies and the impact on the entity’s financial performance. These disclosures include:
- The nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows.
- Information about performance obligations and significant payment terms.
- Methods used to determine the stage of completion for service transactions.
Transition: Entities transitioning to Ind AS 18 are required to apply the standard retrospectively to prior periods unless it is impracticable to do so. In such cases, adjustments are made to opening retained earnings in the year of adoption.
Supersession by Ind AS 115:
It’s important to note that Ind AS 18 has been superseded by Ind AS 115 – Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which is more aligned with the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 15. Ind AS 115 provides a comprehensive framework for revenue recognition based on the transfer of control over goods or services to customers.
Ind AS 18, “Revenue,” lays down the fundamental principles for recognizing revenue from various sources, ensuring that revenue is reported accurately and transparently in financial statements. Entities must carefully consider the criteria and guidance provided in the standard to appropriately recognize and disclose revenue from different types of transactions. As accounting standards continue to evolve, staying updated with the latest developments is crucial for maintaining compliance and transparency in financial reporting.
Check this link on Revenue Recognition